RUSSELL KIGHTLEY / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY RUSSELL KIGHTLEY / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
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Herpes virus replicating, computer artwork. Viruses are only able to replicate in a host cell. The glycoprotein spikes in the virus' envelope (green) enable it to fuse with the host cell's membrane (upper right). The virus' capsid (protein coat, blue), which contains its DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) genome (red), is released into the cell's cytoplasm. The virus particle travels to the nucleus (pink), entering it through a nuclear pore, and uses the cell's machinery to replicate its own DNA and produce and assemble new capsid proteins. The daughter DNA enters the new capsids and the particles leave the nucleus, again through a nuclear pore. Envelope proteins are added to the capsid by Golgi bodies in the cytoplasm. The viruses then leave the cell, ready to infect another cell.
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