JOHN BAVOSI / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY JOHN BAVOSI / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Artwork of the bronchi of the lungs in chronic obstructive pulmonary (or lung) disease (COPD). COPD is a combination of emphysema and chronic bronchitis. Bronchi, with bands of purple cartilage, are shown cutaway to reveal their sputum (phlegm, yellow). Arteries are red, veins are blue and nerves are yellow. The bronchitis is shown by the bronchi's inflamed inner walls and the thick sputum. In emphysema, the walls of the lungs' alveoli (air sacs, not seen) break down, creating fewer, larger alveoli. COPD causes shortness of breath and can lead to oedema and heart failure. It is usually caused by smoking and damage is irreparable.
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