DR P. MARAZZI / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY DR P. MARAZZI / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
Clinical photograph of a thrombosed external haemorrhoid (or pile). Haemorrhoids are enlarged (varicose) veins around the anus, which arise as a consequence of constipation (or on occasions, diarrhoea). In piles that do not protrude from the anus (first-degree haemorrhoids), bleeding following defaecation may be the only symptom. Some that protrude beyond the anus may resolve spontaneously; third-degree piles persist & need to be physically replaced through forceful dilation of the anus or surgery. Radical treatment is required if they become strangulated, which is accompanied by increased pain & enlargement.
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