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Jaundice. A sample of urine from a patient suffering from jaundice. The deep yellow colour is due to an excess of bilirubin, a bile pigment, in the body. This is indicative of two of the three forms of jaundice, obstructive and hepatocellular. In the other form, haemolytic, the urine retains its normal colour. Obstructive jaundice occurs when the bile fails to reach the intestine, due to obstruction of the bile ducts or cholestasis. Hepatocellular jaundice is the result of infection of the liver cells, for example in hepatitis. This causes the bilirubin to accumulate in the blood as the liver is unable to process it.
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