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Pneumocystis pneumonia. Coloured frontal chest X- ray of the cloudy lungs of an AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) patient with pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP). This lung infection is the most common opportunistic illness in people infected with HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) and is caused by the fungus Pneumocystis jaroveci (previously P. carinii). Pneumonia causes an inflammation of the lungs. The tiny air-sacs (alveoli) in the lungs to fill with pus and fluid (exudate), which hinders gas exchange. If left untreated, pneumonia leads to acute respiratory distress and blood poisoning (sepsis). Treatment involves the use of antibiotics and bed rest.
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