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Spinal column nerve stimulator. Coloured X-ray of the wires (green) of a spinal nerve stimulator. The spine (yellow) runs from top to bottom, with the pelvis at lower frame. The wires lead to the stimulator (not seen), implanted under the skin near the lowest rib. This male paraplegic is paralysed from the waist down. The wires enter the spinal canal through a hole cut between the 4th (L4) and 5th (L5) lumbar vertebrae (L5, the first vertebra above the pelvis, is below L4). The wires attach to the nerve roots of the sacral vertebrae S2-4 in L5. Using an external radio transmitter, bladder, bowel and erection control is restored.
Model release not required. Property release not required.