HATTIE YOUNG / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY HATTIE YOUNG / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
Human insulin: A diabetic fills a syringe with Ultratard, a human insulin. This patient requires a dose injected every 24 hours, with a supplement- ary smaller dose given by novopen injection before each meal. Insulin is a pancreatic hormone which controls carbohydrate metabolism. Carbohydrates occur in the blood as glucose, and insulin promotes glucose absorption into the liver and muscle cells. People with diabetes mellitus suffer a deficiency of insulin; they require injections of insulin to lower their blood glucose levels. Most insulins are porcine or human-derived. Human insulins like Ultratard are manufactured biosyn- thetically by genetic engineering.
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