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Caesarean section: with the aid of forceps the baby's head is delivered through incisions in the abdominal and uterine walls. The mother is given an epidural or a general anaesthetic before the operation. Caesarean sections are performed if the baby is unable to fit through the mother's pelvis or shows signs of foetal distress (lack of oxygen) before the cervix is fully dilated. Other reasons for this procedure include a placenta that is lying close to the cervix, and unsuccessful induction of labour.
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