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HPV cervical infection. Light micrograph of a cervical smear revealing infection with the human papilloma virus (HPV). HPV causes genital warts & is implicated in the development of cervical cancer. Typical changes to the pink-stained squamous epithelial cells seen here include binucleation (seen at lower right) and formation of large haloes around the nuclei (koilocytosis, seen at upper centre). Cervical cancer is thought to be caused by a continuation of such cellular changes. Of the over 40 different strains of HPV, HPV16 and HPV18 have been found in 90% of squamous cell cancers. Papanicolaou stain. Magnification: x400 at 35mm size.
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