DR. E. WALKER / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY DR. E. WALKER / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
HPV cervical infection. Light micrograph of a cervical smear revealing epithelial cells infected with the human papilloma virus (HPV). HPV causes genital warts and is implicated in the development of cervical cancer. Typical changes to the squamous cells (blue and pink) include development of two nuclei (black dots) in individual cells (binucleation). Also, large haloes around the nuclei (koilocytosis) are evident. Cervical cancer is thought to be caused by a continuation of such cellular changes. This smear would be considered "borderline abnormal" and repeated after three months. Papanicolaou stained. Magnification: x400 at 35mm size.
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