MEHAU KULYK / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY MEHAU KULYK / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
Back deformities, historical anatomical artwork. These patients all have spinal deformities leading to abnormal curvatures of the back. Such deformities can be caused by conditions like osteoporosis (reduced bone mineral density leading to more fragile bones), ankylosis (fusion of the bones), abnormal development of the spine or a congenital condition. This illustration is taken from the 19th century French textbook The Atlas of Human Anatomy and Surgery by J. M. Bourgery and N. H. Jacob.
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