JEAN-LOUP CHARMET / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY JEAN-LOUP CHARMET / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
A doctor peforming a smallpox vaccination on an infant, after a painting of the 19th Century. The procedure involved introducing cowpox into the subject through a scratch on the skin. Cowpox is a mild disease, and confers immunity to the similar but often fatal smallpox through the production of antibodies.
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