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History of smallpox vaccination. Illustration showing cowpox lesions on the hand of a milk-maid. The illustration is from An Inquiry into the Causes and Effects of the Variole Vaccine by Edward Jenner and published in 1798. Jenner coined the word vaccination to describe his use of cowpox inoculation to obtain immunity to smallpox. Jenner experimented on an 8-year old boy (James Phipps) by inoculating him with fluid obtained from the blister on the hand of a milk-maid (Sarah Nelmes) who had cowpox. He later inoculated the boy with smallpox. The boy survived and did not contract smallpox.
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