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Neck blood vessel surgery. Historical artwork of the techniques used to expose the carotid and subclavian blood vessels during surgery. The skin (pink) and fat layer (yellow) are shown. At top, the sternomastoid muscle (dark red, right hook) has been retracted outward, followed by the dissection of the deep layer of the cervical fascia (white, left hook). This has exposed the common carotid artery (red), the jugular vein (blue), and the vagus nerve and hypoglossal nerve (white, between vessels). At bottom, the pectoralis major and deltoid muscles (red) have been cut open below the clavicle, revealing the subclavian artery (red) and vein (blue) and the brachial plexus of nerves (white). Artwork from Atlas and Epitome of Operative Surgery (1898, Otto Zuckerkandl).
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