NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
Doctor. In medieval medicine, uroscopy was an important diagnostic tool, urine having 29 attributes to be observed. From this the physician deduced the supposed levels of a patient's four 'humours' (bodily fluids): blood, yellow bile, black bile and phlegm. Illness was thought to be due to an imbalance in these fluids. It was thought that the imbalance could be redressed by changing the patient's diet, prescribing medicine, by bleeding the patient or by surgery. Image drawn by Lorenz Fries of Colmar, Germany, in 1519.
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