JEAN-LOUP CHARMET / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY JEAN-LOUP CHARMET / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
Phrenology. Caricature of Franz Joseph Gall, inventor of the pseudo-science of phrenology, showing a skull to a group of followers. In the background are human skulls and head busts packed onto shelves according to what type of person they came from. Gall (1758-1828), a German physician, mistakenly believed that the brain contained up to 42 organs. Each of these supposedly controlled a particular mental faculty & would increase in size if often used, affecting the overall shape of the skull. The shape of the skull could therefore be used to determine a person's personality & intelligence. British caricature from the 19th century when phrenology peaked in popularity.
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