CCI ARCHIVES / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY CCI ARCHIVES / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
Collection of dental tools from the collection of items belonging to Hortense de Beauharnais (1783-1837), daughter of Josephine, later Empress of France. At the bidding of her father-in-law, the French Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte, Hortense married the Emperor's brother, Louis, and thus became Queen of Holland when Louis was made King of Holland. The tools date from the period 1810-1820. Dental operations were painful and dangerous procedures until improvements in hygiene and anaesthetics later in the 19th century.
Model release not required. Property release not required.