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Mariner 10 spacecraft. Artwork showing the voyage of the Mariner 10 spacecraft mission to Venus (at centre left) and Mercury (at centre right). Mariner took 1000 pictures of Earth (at upper left), 3500 of Venus and 3700 Mercury; these were the first close-up images of the latter two planets. Mariner 10 measured the density, height and temperature of the clouds in Venus' atmosphere. It discovered Mercury's magnetic field and a thin atmosphere. It also measured the mass of both planets. Mariner 10 was launched on 4 November 1973, passing Venus on 5 February 1974 and flying by Mercury on 29 March 1974, 21 September 1974 and 16 March 1975.
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