MANFRED KAGE / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY MANFRED KAGE / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
A single circular semiconductor wafer, comprised of numerous individual Siemens 4 Megabyte (Mb) integrated circuits that will ultimately be used as computer memory devices. Individual integrated circuits (chips) are made from circular wafers, initially cut from a cylinder of semiconductor material such as silicon or gallium arsenide. The complex pattern of circuits that comprises each chip is built-up in a series of processes involving masks, deposition of insulators and etchings. Finished chips are eventually diced from the wafer prior to packaging.
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