34.7 MB (1.5 MB compressed)
2848 x 4256 pixels
24.1 x 36.1 cm ⏐ 9.5 x 14.2 in (300dpi)
MARTYN F. CHILLMAID / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY MARTYN F. CHILLMAID / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
Reflux heating using a water bath. The water bath, unlike heating with an electric mantle, ensures the temperature does not exceed 100 degrees Celsius. It boils the liquid in the reaction vessel, allowing the reaction to proceed at the boiling point of the solvent. The tubes are bringing water to the condenser, cooling the solvent gas so that it condenses back into the reaction vessel, rather than escaping out of the top of the reflux apparatus. This allows long periods of heating without excessive loss of solvent. For the apparatus for reflux with an electric heater, see T875/1274.
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