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Newcomen's engine. Historical artwork of the steam engine patented by Thomas Newcomen (1663-1729) in 1705. The Newcomen atmospheric engine was the first to have a 'walking beam' pivoted arm (top) to transfer power between the piston and the rod. It was used to pump water out of coal mines. The piston (h) was driven down by the pressure of a partial vacuum in the cylinder (c), causing the rod (m) to be drawn upwards. As steam in the cylinder condensed the piston was forced up, and the rod forced down. This is the first true steam engine. Published in History and progress of the steam engine, England, 1830.
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