ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
Harton Colliery, 19th century coal mine. Miners and a child standing outside the coal mine at Harton, near South Shields, England. This mine was used in 1854 by the English mathematician and astronomer George Biddell Airy (1801-1892) to carry out pendulum experiments to determine the density of the Earth. The differences in the characteristics of a pendulum at the top and bottom of the mine, which was 383 metres deep, allowed Airy to calculate this value. Artwork published in Airy's Lecture on Harton Colliery Experiments.
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