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Title page of Experimenta de Vacuo Spatio by Otto von Guericke, published at Amsterdam in 1672. Guericke (1602-1686) invented the air pump, and was the first to create and study the vacuum. At top right is a model of the famous Magdeburg sphere. This was made from two large hemispheres of metal. When joined together and an internal vacuum created, the hemispheres could not be pulled apart by two teams of eight horses - thus demonstrating the 'strength' of a vacuum.
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