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Optical effects. Historical artwork of various optical effects. These are light travelling in straight lines (top left to lower right), the heating effect of focused light (centre left), light reflection in a mirror (lower left), light refraction (as shown by the man's legs in the water at bottom centre) and the rainbow (far right). This illustration was taken from Optica by the 13th century Polish physicist Witelo which was published in 1535. At this time all of these optical effects lacked an explanation.
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