J-L CHARMET / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY J-L CHARMET / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
Early 16th century illustration from La Margarita Philosophica showing two different types of arithmetic. The early Greek philosoper and mathematician Pythagoras (about 582-497 BC) is shown using an abacus, while the Roman philosopher Anicius Boethius (about 480-524 AD) uses arabic numerals and mathematical symbols.
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