ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
Aristotelian cosmology, with astrological and zodiacal symbols. This Earth-centred (geocentric) worldview originated with the Ancient Greeks and dominated medieval Europe until the time of Copernicus (1543). The heavenly bodies circled the Earth attached to spheres. At centre are the four elements of Earth, Water, Air and Fire. Then there are successive spheres for the Moon, Mercury, Venus, the Sun, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn. The outer three spheres are: the Firmament (including the stars), the Crystalline Heaven, and the Primum Mobile. Beyond this is the Empyreal Heaven, the Abode of the Blessed. Published in Cosmographia (1524) by the German astronomer Petrus Apianus.
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