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Early X-ray tubes (1905). Advertisement describing the design of "Muller" X-ray tubes, published in the Journal of the Roentgen Society in December 1905. Three electric-discharge gas tubes for emitting X-rays are shown, each designed for a different usage. There is even a water-cooled variety. From the discovery of X-rays by Roentgen in 1895 to 1913, a wide variety of such gas tubes, some self-regulating, were designed. Gas tubes, however, were unstable and unreliable. It was only in 1913, when William Coolidge introduced his Hot Cathode X-ray tube, that a great improvement in X- ray technique took place.
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