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Glass bottle shattered by frozen water

Glass bottle shattered by frozen water

A350/0253

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Credit

MARTYN F. CHILLMAID / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY MARTYN F. CHILLMAID / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY

Caption

Glass bottle shattered by frozen water, showing how water expands when it freezes. The ice has shattered the glass sides of the bottle as the expansion increased the pressure inside it. Water expands when it freezes because hydrogen bonds between the water molecules form an open lattice structure. This takes up more space than in the liquid state and forces the molecules apart. The open lattice structure also makes ice less dense than water, allowing it to float on the liquid. Water freezes to ice at 0 degrees Celsius and is the only known, non-metallic substance to expand when it freezes.

Release details

Model release not required. Property release not required.

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