SIMON FRASER / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY SIMON FRASER / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
Musk oxen (Ovibos moschatus) adults with calves. These large herbivores inhabit the Arctic tundra, from Canada to Greenland. During the summer breeding season females live in small harems led by a dominant male, giving birth to their calves after a gestation period of 8-9 months. The long horns, present in both sexes, are used in dominance disputes between males and in defence against predators such as the Arctic wolf. When the group is threatened, the adults form a compact circle around the calves, facing outwards. Musk oxen feed on a wide variety of plants, including grasses and sedges. Photographed in North East Greenland National Park, Greenland.
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