EQUINOX GRAPHICS / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY EQUINOX GRAPHICS / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
Heat transfer by convection. The animation shows a beaker of water being heated by a Bunsen burner flame. A zoom into the beaker reveals the temperature of the water. White is the warmest, followed by red, yellow and green to blue (coolest). Warm water is less dense than cold water, so it rises through the cold water above, spreading out at the surface before descending at the sides. This sets up convection currents in the water (arrows), which serve to spread the warmth throughout the water.
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