DR P. MARAZZI / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY DR P. MARAZZI / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
Keyhole kidney removal surgery. Close-up of surgeons removing a cancerous kidney using keyhole laparoscopic surgery techniques. Small incisions (keyhole ports) in the abdomen are used to operate on and remove the kidney. This is less traumatic than opening up the abdomen. Here, the kidney and its tumour, fat, blood vessels and ureter, are being pulled through an enlarged port. Two other ports are seen as well (right and lower centre). When the kidney's ureter is removed as well, this operation is called a nephroureterectomy. Earlier parts of this minimally invasive operation used robotic assistance.
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