SPUTNIK / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY SPUTNIK / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
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Ivan Petrovich Pavlov (1849-1936), Russian physiologist, seen giving a lecture. Pavlov (at extreme left) was born and educated at Riazan. He initially studied theology at seminary school but later turned to science and in 1870 enrolled at the University of Saint Petersburg. He graduated first in physics, then in medicine. Pavlov is most famous for his work on conditioned reflexes, sometimes called Pavlovian conditioning in his honour. With the right conditioning, the sound of a bell would cause a dog to salivate even when food was not present. Pavlov was awarded the 1904 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in recognition of his work on digestion. He was also elected to the Russian Academy of Sciences in 1907.
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