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Tunnel construction. Hydraulic rams around the circular cutting face push it forward, with the excavated soil and earth being removed by men and donkey-drawn carts. This method was used particularly for underwater tunnels. Such tunnels being constructed by these methods at the time included Brunel's tunnel under the Thames in London, the London Underground, and the Hudson tunnel in New York. Artwork from the seventh volume (first period of 1891) of the French popular science weekly 'La Science Illustree'.
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