STEVE GSCHMEISSNER / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY STEVE GSCHMEISSNER / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
Crenated red blood cells. Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM), showing crenated red blood cells present in a urine sample taken from someone with a urinary tract infection (UTI). Crenation is caused by dehydration, which distorts the cell. Normally, a few RBCs are present in urine sediment. Inflammation, injury, or disease in the kidneys or elsewhere in the urinary tract, for example, in the bladder or urethra, can cause RBCs to leak out of the blood vessels into the urine. A shed epithelial cell is present in the background. Magnification: x6600 when printed to centimetres wide.
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