GARY BROWN / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY GARY BROWN / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939). Caricature of the Austrian psychologist Sigmund Freud. Freud theorized that mental illness could have psychological as well as physiological causes. He believed that the mind contains conscious and unconscious levels. Bad memories are repressed and stored unconsciously, but may still affect behaviour. Freud studied the unconscious by analysing subjects' dreams. These studies led him to believe that sexual impulses were responsible for neuroses. Freud is considered one of the great creative thinkers of modern times although his work remains controversial.
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