PAUL D STEWART / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY PAUL D STEWART / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
Editorial use only.
This Anthropometry photograph was taken of the polymath Francis Galton at age 71 when he visited Bertillou's Criminal Identification Laboratory in Paris 1893. It is here reproduced from Pearson's "Life of Sir Francis Galton". Alphonse Bertillon originated the criminal identification program of face-on and profile photographs together with key biometric measurements, partly inspired by Galton's own work. Fingerprints, Galton's discovery, were also eventually taken as unique identifiers. Arthur Conan Doyle is said to have hailed Bertillon as the inspiration behind Sherlock Holmes. Bertillon lost credibility as an expert witness in the notorious Dreyfuss case of 1899. His methods were used to produce the first identification cards that mobile 'gypsies' had to carry in 1912 and his work is seen as the direct antecedent of criminal records and citizen ID's today.
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