DETLEV VAN RAVENSWAAY / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY DETLEV VAN RAVENSWAAY / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
Schiaparelli's Mars, historical artwork. Map of the planet Mars, drawn by the Italian astronomer Giovanni Schiaparelli in 1909, showing the southern polar cap (white, upper right). Schiaparelli saw many dark lines criss-crossing the planet and called them 'canali' (channels), which was mistranslated as 'canals'. Today it is known that these canali were merely optical illusions.
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