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Swan anatomy. The organ referred to as the 'aspera arteria' is the trachea or windpipe. This is shown for a swan in the main diagram at left, and for the Indian cock at upper right. The swan's trachea doubles round the sternum (breast bone) before reaching the lungs, as shown at lower left and lower right. The oesophagus and vertebrae are also shown. This page is from volume 56 (1766) of the journal 'Philosophical Transactions', published by the Royal Society of London.
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