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Heart disease. The main illustration shows the left ventricle of the heart opened. At upper left is the aortic valve viewed from inside the heart. At lower left is a 'petrified' aortic valve. Corresponding views from the other side of the valves are at upper right and lower right. This page is from volume 5 of the 1734 edition of 'The Philosophical Transactions', an abridged collection of papers from the Royal Society. The original paper (without figure 178, lower centre) was published in 1705 by the English surgeon William Cowper (c.1666-1709) in volume 24 of 'Philosophical Transactions'.
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