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Black smoker hydrothermal vent along the Juan de Fuca Ridge in the Pacific Ocean. Black smokers are seabed volcanic vents where minerals dissolve in water superheated by magma (molten rock). The minerals precipitate out on contact with the cold surrounding water, producing 'smoke'. The minerals form crusts around the vents, causing them to grow into tall chimneys over time. The chimney is covered in giant tube worms (Riftia pachyptila), marine invertebrates that are able to tolerate high temperatures. Researchers have placed an acoustic hydrophone and a resistivity temperature hydrogen (RTH) probe around the vent to monitor sound and hydrogen gas levels respectively.
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