SPUTNIK / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY SPUTNIK / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
Ivan Petrovich Pavlov (1849-1936), Russian psychologist and physiologist, in a portrait in oils from 1930. His most famous work was on the reflex actions in animals, notably the idea of conditioning of reflexes by repeated reward or punishment stimuli. Pavlov won the 1904 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine. This portrait was painted by Soviet artist Mikhail Nesterov (1862-1942) and hangs in the Russian State Museum.
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