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Illustration showing the superficial femoral artery of the leg with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). The atherosclerosis of the lower extremity arteries are detected first by pulse volume recordings and ankle-brachial blood pressure ratios. The blood pressure measurements are taken in the upper and lower extremity to determine the ankle-brachial index (ABI). The pulse volume recordings are done at different points of the leg and are shown in the illustration by graphically editorialised bands with wave forms. Triphasic wave forms are normal, but change to biphasic or monophasic if in a diseased state. The wave form running left to right represents the second line of detection for PAD, doppler ultrasonography.
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