DR KEITH WHEELER / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY DR KEITH WHEELER / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
Leaf miner disease. Macrophotograph of a portion of a leaf of a horse-chestnut tree, showing damage caused by the caterpillar of the horse-chestnut leaf miner moth (Cameraria ohridella). The caterpillar (upper left) burrows under the epidermal layer of the leaf, eating mainly the palisade layer of the mesophyll (light green) and leaving a trail of its frass (faecal pellets, brown). This moth can produce several generations per year, and leaf loss from affected trees can be severe, which in turn reduces the amount of photosynthesis carried out by the tree. It is necessary to burn the fallen leaves to prevent the problem recurring.
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