PASCAL GOETGHELUCK / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY PASCAL GOETGHELUCK / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
Neanderthal jaw bone. Cephalometer being used to make measurements on a lower jaw bone (mandible) from the Neanderthal skull La Ferrassie 1. This specimen, from an elderly male, dates from around 70,000 years ago. It was discovered in the Dordogne region in southern France in 1909. Neanderthals (Homo neanderthalensis) first appeared in Europe around 600,000 years ago, and co-existed with modern humans, who emerged around 200,000 years ago. Neanderthals went extinct, or interbred with modern humans, by around 25,000 years ago. Photographed in 2010, at the National Museum of Natural History, Paris, France.
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