SPUTNIK / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY SPUTNIK / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
Andrei Sakharov (1921-1989). Historical portrait of Russian nuclear physicist Andrei Dmitrievich Sakharov speaking at a meeting in Luzhniki, Russia, during the First Congress of People's Deputies of the USSR. Sakharov helped develop the first Soviet hydrogen bomb, successfully tested in August 1953. His doubts concerning the safety of nuclear tests, however, led him to campaign for a nuclear test- ban and improved civil rights. He was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1975. In 1980, he was sent into internal exile, released by Gorbachov in 1986.
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