CLAUS LUNAU / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY CLAUS LUNAU / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
Water mill design. Diagram illustrating the design principles and mode of operation of a water mill. Water from a river or stream is diverted to flow (white arrows) over a paddle wheel (upper left). The kinetic and potential energy of the falling water is converted into rotary motion (red arrows), which is transferred from the wheel to the mill (centre right) by a system of cogs and gears. Here, the millstone is being used to grind wheat grains to produce flour, used to make bread. Water mills are very ancient technologies, dating back to at least the 3rd century BC in Ancient Greece.
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