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Vena cavae veins. Dissection showing the veins (blue) associated with the vertebral column and heart. The superior (top) and inferior vena cava drain blood to the heart (centre, removed). Also shown are the azygos vein, hemiazygos vein, vertebral veins, and intercostal veins of the ribs. This anatomical artwork is plate 253 from volume 4 of 'Manuel d'anatomie descriptive du corps humain' (1825). This 5-volume anatomy atlas was produced by French physician and surgeon Jules Germain Cloquet (1790-1883). The illustrations were by Haincelin. Volume 4 illustrated the anatomy of the circulatory and respiratory systems.
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