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Julius Erasmus Hilgard (1825-1890), German-US surveyor. Hilgard and his family settled in rural Illinois in 1835. After studying engineering, he joined the US Coast Survey (later the US Coast and Geodetic Survey) in 1846. He was acting leader in the early 1860s, but was not promoted to the leadership (Superintendent) until 1881, by which time his health had started to fail (he resigned in 1885). He represented the US at the International Committee on Weights and Measures, and was elected president of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 1875. This photograph dates from between 1860 and 1875.
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