BO VEISLAND / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY BO VEISLAND / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
Effect of Parkinson's disease. Computer artwork showing the neural pathways within the brain that are affected by a lack of dopamine, caused by the onset of Parkinson's disease. Parkinson's is characterised by slow jerky body movements resulting from the death of dopamine-generating cells in the substantia nigra (purple, bottom) of the midbrain. When performing a body movement, a nerve impulse is sent from the cortex (beige) downwards to the striatum (green). When there is not enough dopamine present in the putamen (small, round, lower centre) it is sourced elsewhere and may take slower and different pathways (arrow, lower left) to reach the pallidum (red, right) and generate the relevant muscle movements. It therefore requires more energy and takes more.
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