GARY BROWN / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY GARY BROWN / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
Karl Friedrich Gauss (1777-1855). Caricature of the German mathematician Karl Friedrich Gauss. Gauss contributed to all areas of mathematics, especially to number theory. Much of his mathematical research remained unpublished during his lifetime, and the degree to which he anticipated a century of mathematics has only become clear since his death. In 1801 he won fame when his computation of the orbit of Ceres led to the rediscovery of the asteroid. He also studied the Earth's magnetic field, and developed the magnetometer with Weber.
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